What do the terms Diploma, Certificate, Degree, Course record and Research topic mean exactly?

Diploma: proof of graduation from university (certified)

Certificate: High School diploma, any sort of short course you followed, for instance an English language course (TOEFL or IELTS)

Degree: your university degree, for instance BSc, MSc, PhD.

Course record: a list of your grades and results of your studies.

Research topic: depending on your degree; a description of the area of your interest or the title of your thesis.